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In May , with the announcement of Android 8. Project Treble separates the vendor implementation device-specific, lower-level software written by silicon manufacturers from the Android OS framework via a new "vendor interface".
With Treble, the new stable vendor interface provides access to the hardware-specific parts of Android, enabling device makers to deliver new Android releases simply by updating the Android OS framework, "without any additional work required from the silicon manufacturers.
As of [update] , Android targets versions 4. In August , Linus Torvalds said that "eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years".
The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: However, root access can be obtained by exploiting security flaws in Android, which is used frequently by the open-source community to enhance the capabilities of their devices,  but also by malicious parties to install viruses and malware.
With the release of Android Oreo in , Google began to require that devices shipped with new SoCs had Linux kernel version 4. Existing devices upgraded to Oreo, and new products launched with older SoCs, were exempt from this rule.
On top of the Linux kernel, there are the middleware , libraries and APIs written in C , and application software running on an application framework which includes Java -compatible libraries.
Following the trace-based JIT principle, in addition to interpreting the majority of application code, Dalvik performs the compilation and native execution of select frequently executed code segments "traces" each time an application is launched.
Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel. Android does not have a native X Window System by default, nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries.
Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party firmware development.
Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this.
As a result, technical obstacles including locked bootloaders and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices.
However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the " jailbreaking " of mobile devices,  manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including HTC ,  Motorola ,  Samsung   and Sony ,  providing support and encouraging development.
They are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes. GCHQ has, according to The Guardian , a wiki -style guide of different apps and advertising networks, and the different data that can be siphoned from each.
The documents revealed a further effort by the intelligence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and queries submitted from Android and other smartphones to collect location information in bulk.
Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from —, detail the capabilities of the Central Intelligence Agency CIA to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare , including the ability to compromise the operating systems of most smartphones including Android.
Research from security company Trend Micro lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to premium-rate telephone numbers without the consent or even knowledge of the user.
Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive advertisements on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties.
In August , Google announced that devices in the Google Nexus series would begin to receive monthly security patches.
Google also wrote that "Nexus devices will continue to receive major updates for at least two years and security patches for the longer of three years from initial availability or 18 months from last sale of the device via the Google Store.
Google was starting from scratch with zero percent market share, so it was happy to give up control and give everyone a seat at the table in exchange for adoption.
As such, security has become a big issue. And a bunch of broken promises". They also wrote that "About half of devices in use at the end of had not received a platform security update in the previous year", stating that their work would continue to focus on streamlining the security updates program for easier deployment by manufacturers.
Patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-priced devices.
For example, Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their Open Kernel Labs acquisition to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened microvisor for the "Knox" project.
Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points.
These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare , Google Latitude , Facebook Places , and to deliver location-based ads.
It is not possible, for example, to turn off the microphone access of the pre-installed camera app without disabling the camera completely.
This is valid also in Android versions 7 and 8. Since February , Google has used its Google Bouncer malware scanner to watch over and scan apps available in the Google Play store.
Before installing an application, the Google Play store displays a list of the requirements an app needs to function. After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept.
An opt-in system is used instead, in which users are prompted to grant or deny individual permissions to an app when they are needed for the first time.
Applications remember the grants, which can be revoked by the user at any time. Pre-installed apps, however, are not always part of this approach.
In some cases it may not be possible to deny certain permissions to pre-installed apps, nor be possible to disable them. The Google Play Services app cannot be uninstalled, nor disabled.
Any force stop attempt, result in the app restarting itself. Permissions can still be revoked for those apps, though this might prevent them from working properly, and a warning is displayed to that effect.
Nova wrote that "The Android operating system deals with software packages by sandboxing them; this does not allow applications to list the directory contents of other apps to keep the system safe.
By not allowing the antivirus to list the directories of other apps after installation, applications that show no inherent suspicious behavior when downloaded are cleared as safe.
The study by Fraunhofer AISEC, examining antivirus software from Avast , AVG , Bitdefender , ESET , F-Secure , Kaspersky , Lookout , McAfee formerly Intel Security , Norton , Sophos , and Trend Micro , revealed that "the tested antivirus apps do not provide protection against customized malware or targeted attacks", and that "the tested antivirus apps were also not able to detect malware which is completely unknown to date but does not make any efforts to hide its malignity".
In August , Google announced Android Device Manager renamed Find My Device in May ,   a service that allows users to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android device,   with an Android app for the service released in December.
On October 8, Google announced new Google Play store requirements to combat over-sharing of potentially sensitive information, including call and text logs.
Alternatively, a permission might be listed in the app manifest as required as opposed to optional and app would not install unless user grants the permission; user can withdraw any, even required, permission from any app in the device settings after app installation, but few users do this.
Google promised to work with developers and create exceptions if their apps require Phone or SMS permissions for "core app functionality". The new policies enforcement started on January 6, , 90 days after policy announcement on October 8, The API level requirement might combat practice of app developers bypassing some permission screens by specifying early Android versions that had more coarse permission model.
The source code for Android is open-source: Google publishes most of the code including network and telephony stacks under the non-copyleft Apache License version 2.
Associated Linux kernel changes are released under the copyleft GNU General Public License version 2, developed by the Open Handset Alliance , with the source code publicly available at all times.
Typically, Google collaborates with a hardware manufacturer to produce a flagship device part of the Nexus series featuring the new version of Android, then makes the source code available after that device has been released.
The reason, according to Andy Rubin in an official Android blog post, was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the Motorola Xoom ,  and they did not want third parties creating a "really bad user experience" by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets.
These applications must be licensed from Google by device makers, and can only be shipped on devices which meet its compatibility guidelines and other requirements.
Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation have been critical of Android and have recommended the usage of alternatives such as Replicant , because drivers and firmware vital for the proper functioning of Android devices are usually proprietary, and because the Google Play Store application can forcibly install or uninstall applications and, as a result, invite non-free software; although the Free Software Foundation has not found Google to use it for malicious reasons.
Moreover, open-source variants of some applications also exclude functions that are present in their non-free versions, such as Photosphere panoramas in Camera, and a Google Now page on the default home screen exclusive to the proprietary version "Google Now Launcher", whose code is embedded within that of the main Google application.
Apps that do not use Google components would also be at a functional disadvantage, as they can only use APIs contained within the OS itself. In March , it was reported that Google had begun to block "uncertified" Android devices from using Google Mobile Services software, and display a warning indicating that "the device manufacturer has preloaded Google apps and services without certification from Google".
Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store which offered Android apps; however, the majority of them were pirated.
Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android.
Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system   and "one of the fastest mobile experiences available".
As a result, it has been described by technology website Ars Technica as "practically the default operating system for launching new hardware" for companies without their own mobile platforms.
Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites.
These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others. Android has suffered from "fragmentation",  a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less.
For example, according to data from OpenSignal in July , there were 11, models of Android device, numerous different screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS.
They maintain this forces Android developers to write for the "lowest common denominator" to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the latest hardware or software features only available on a smaller percentage of devices.
Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of , that Android had a 2. By the third quarter of , Gartner estimated that more than half In July , Google said that , Android devices were being activated every day,  up from , per day in May,  and more than million devices had been activated  with 4.
Android market share varies by location. In April Android had 1. Android devices account for more than half of smartphone sales in most markets, including the US, while "only in Japan was Apple on top" September—November numbers.
Three billion Android smartphones are estimated to be sold by the end of including previous years. According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since According to StatCounter , which tracks only the use for browsing the web, Android is the most popular mobile operating system since August According to StatCounter, Android is most used on mobile in all African countries, and it stated "mobile usage has already overtaken desktop in several countries including India, South Africa and Saudi Arabia",  with virtually all countries in Africa having done so already except for seven countries, including Egypt , such as Ethiopia and Kenya in which mobile including tablets usage is at According to a January Gartner report, "Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices in , and will continue to grow at a double-digit pace in , with a 26 percent increase year over year.
Gartner expected the whole mobile phone market to "reach two billion units in ", including Android. According to an April StatCounter report, Android overtook Microsoft Windows to become the most popular operating system for total Internet usage.
In September , Google announced that Android had 1. Despite its success on smartphones, initially Android tablet adoption was slow.
This approach, such as with the Dell Streak , failed to gain market traction with consumers as well as damaging the early reputation of Android tablets.
As of the end of , over Charts in this section provide breakdowns of Android versions, based on devices accessing the Google Play Store in a seven-day period ending on October 26, As of October [update] , In general, paid Android applications can easily be pirated.
In , Google released a tool for validating authorized purchases for use within apps, but developers complained that this was insufficient and trivial to crack.
Google responded that the tool, especially its initial release, was intended as a sample framework for developers to modify and build upon depending on their needs, not as a finished piracy solution.
The success of Android has made it a target for patent and copyright litigation between technology companies, both Android and Android phone manufacturers having been involved in numerous patent lawsuits and other legal challenges.
On August 12, , Oracle sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the Java programming language.
In December , Google announced that the next major release of Android Android Nougat would switch to OpenJDK , which is the official open-source implementation of the Java platform, instead of using the now-discontinued Apache Harmony project as its runtime.
Code reflecting this change was also posted to the AOSP source repository. In , FairSearch , a lobbying organization supported by Microsoft, Oracle and others, filed a complaint regarding Android with the European Commission , alleging that its free-of-charge distribution model constituted anti-competitive predatory pricing.
Google Search will be licensed separately, with an option to include Google Chrome at no additional cost atop Search. European OEMs are able to bundle third-party alternatives on phones and devices sold to customers, if they so choose.
OEMs will no longer be barred from selling any device running incompatible versions of Android in Europe.
In addition to lawsuits against Google directly, various proxy wars have been waged against Android indirectly by targeting manufacturers of Android devices, with the effect of discouraging manufacturers from adopting the platform by increasing the costs of bringing an Android device to market.
Google has publicly expressed its frustration for the current patent landscape in the United States, accusing Apple, Oracle and Microsoft of trying to take down Android through patent litigation, rather than innovating and competing with better products and services.
Google has developed several variations of Android for specific use cases, including Android Wear, later renamed Wear OS , for wearable devices such as wrist watches,   Android TV for televisions,   and Android Things for smart devices and Internet of things.
The open and customizable nature of Android allows device makers to use it on other electronics as well, including laptops, netbooks ,   and desktop computers,  cameras,  headphones,  home automation systems, game consoles,  media players,  satellites,  routers ,  printers ,  payment terminals ,  automated teller machines ,  and robots.
In , Google demonstrated "Android Home", a home automation technology which uses Android to control a range of household devices including light switches, power sockets and thermostats.
Parrot unveiled an Android-based car stereo system known as Asteroid in ,  followed by a successor, the touchscreen-based Asteroid Smart, in The software is available for developers, and was released in Although it has no official name, the Android team at Google reportedly call it "Bugdroid".
It was designed by then-Google graphic designer Irina Blok on November 5, when Android was announced. Contrary to reports that she was tasked with a project to create an icon,  Blok confirmed in an interview that she independently developed it and made it open source.
The robot design was initially not presented to Google, but it quickly became commonplace in the Android development team, with various different variations of it created by the developers there who liked the figure, as it was free under a Creative Commons license.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Android disambiguation. Free and open-source operating system for mobile devices, developed by Google.
Current logotype top and typeface bottom. Google , Open Handset Alliance. List of features in Android. Android software development and Google Play.
Usage share of operating systems. Ice Cream Sandwich 0. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
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